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Using the BEVI to Assess Individual Experience to Enhance International Programming

Grant, J., Acheson, K., & Karcher, E. (2021). Using the BEVI to Assess Individual Experience to Enhance International Programming. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad33(1), 129-142. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v33i1.491

This case study (n=11) documents the implementation of intercultural learning activities throughout a semester long course and a 9-day trip to Vietnam. Researchers anticipated positive development in critical thinking, openness, and environmental concern measured by the Beliefs, Events, and Values Inventory.

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Evaluating an Intensive Program to Increase Cultural Intelligence: A Quasi-Experimental Design

Chang Alexander, K., Ingersoll, L. T., Calahan, C. A., Miller, M. L., Shields, C. G., Gipson, J. A., & Chang Alexander, S. (2021). Evaluating an Intensive Program to Increase Cultural Intelligence: A Quasi-Experimental Design . Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad33(1), 106-128. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v33i1.497

This study used a quasi-experimental design to compare the effects of an intercultural development program on students' Cultural Intelligence (CQ) compared with students in a summer research program who did not receive the intervention. 

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Constructing the Learning Outcomes with Intercultural Assessment: A 3-Year Study of a Graduate Study Abroad and Glocal Experience Programs

Cartwright, C., Stevens, M., & Schneider, K. (2021). Constructing the Learning Outcomes with Intercultural Assessment: A 3-Year Study of a Graduate Study Abroad and Glocal Experience Programs . Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad33(1), 82-105. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v33i1.521

Learners were assessed using the Inter cultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) and the AAC&U VALUE Rubric on Intercultural Knowledge and Competency (IKAC). Results support the criticality of intentional instructional course design based on intercultural assessment data for improved intercultural competency development.

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Making Sense of Qualitative Data (Reflections)

Even folks with Ph.D's and lots of familiarity with experiential learning can be skittish about using rubrics to make sense of authentic artifacts of reflective learning. This explanation is the simplest and clearest we've yet seen about how to code qualitative data.  Using a rubric is a type of deductive coding, so, to get more comfortable with it, all you really need to read is the part of this essay on "Deductive Coding 101."  But the advice on keeping things simple is excellent, too.

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Katherine Yngve onto All the Rubrics

Standards & Indicators for Evaluating 'Culturally Responsive' Teaching

Funded by an Alaska Native Education grant, this Culture in the Classroom resource defines 5 standards for culturally responsive teaching, with indicators and rubrics of increasing proficiency!  Although growing out of K-12 education, it also has broad applicability to the higher education classroom and would align well with Dr. Diatta-Holgate's work, mentioned earlier in this collection.

Culturally responsive teaching, as defined by expert Zaretta Hammond, in her book Culturally Responsive Teaching and the Brain, is one of the most impactful tools for empowering students to find their way out of what are commonly known as "achievement gaps." Culturally responsive teaching (CRT) attempts to bridge the gap between teacher and student by helping the teacher understand the cultural nuances that may cause a relationship to break down—which ultimately causes student achievement to break down as well.

 

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How to use a rubric to improve student learning

This instructors' resource blog post, from 2018, gives concrete and specific examples of using a rubric to give objective and actionable feedback to a student about a piece of writing.  Since rubrics work similarly no matter what type of learning  is being assessed, this resource may also prove helpful to individuals using the rubrics in this collection.  Instructors who use rubrics may also benefit by watching, and sharing with their students, this video on how, as a student, to use the rubric provided by the instructor to get a better grade!

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Katherine Yngve onto All the Rubrics

Intercultural Communication Competence of Nurses Providing Care for Patients from Different Cultures

Yakar, H. K., & Alpar, S. E. (2018). Intercultural communication competence of nurses providing care for patients from different cultures. International Journal of Caring Sciences11(3), 1743-1755.

This study was performed with nurses who provide care for an intercultural population with the objective of determining intercultural communication competence of nurses who provide care for patients from different cultures. Data were collected from 204 nurses using a Nurse Identification Form, the Intercultural Awareness Scale, Intercultural Sensitivity Scale and Intercultural Effectiveness Scale.

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Enhancing intercultural effectiveness in international virtual student teams: an exploratory study

Petrovskaya, I., & Shaposhnikov, S. (2020). Enhancing intercultural effectiveness in international virtual student teams: an exploratory study. Educational Research for Policy and Practice19(3), 345-361.

The present study focused on the behavioural dimension of intercultural communication competence and investigated whether the short-term experience of working on a project assignment in a virtual multicultural team could produce an increase in students’ intercultural effectiveness. The study employed a single-group pre-test-post-test research design. The sample included 73 students representing 16 nationalities studying in Russian and Japanese universities majoring in business or economics. Students’ responses on the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (Portalla and Chen in Intercult Commun Stud 19(3):21–37, 2010) were collected before and after the project, and paired difference tests (t test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test) were used for data analysis.

  1. IES

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Utilizing the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) to Enhance International Student Travel

Bates, A., & Rehal, D. A. (2017). Utilizing the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) to Enhance International Student Travel. International Research and Review7(1), 44-53.

This paper highlights how one institution used the International Effectiveness Scale (IES) to support intercultural exploration and development for short-term undergraduate travel programs. Authors discuss utilization of the IES to explore students' intercultural development, how it can be applied to create an individualized action plan, and how it can identify intercultural goals during university-sponsored international travel opportunities. 

  1. IES

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Diversity and Social Justice Rubric

This six-dimension rubric, based in part on the AAC&U Intercultural Competence Rubric, was created by team of experts to assess an institutional learning outcome which stated that "...[our] graduates will be able to analyze topics and human experiences using categories such as race, ethnicity, gender, social status and ability."

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Integral Evaluator Self-in-Context Framework

This four-quadrant framework with self-reflection questions can help an evaluator or an evaluation team critically self-examine whether they are, in fact, providing "helpful help" to marginalized groups.  This work comes from Dr. Hazel Symonette, a Black American educator & qualified IDI administrator who has served on the board of the American Evaluators Association, and helped craft the very definition of a culturally competent evaluator.

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What It Means to be a Global Citizen

Watching this video enables participants to explain the meaning of the terms: global citizenship, cosmopolitan and difference and discuss how difference matters in today's society and in their own lives. 

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Niall A Peach onto GEARE 297

Miami University Diversity Awareness Scale

This 37-item survey instrument, created by a multi-ethnic research team, is designed to measure the level of student awareness about issues of culture, intergroup interaction, social justice, and the degree to which these issues are presented in the college classroom.

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Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale (M-GUDS)

This 15-question survey, created by a  renowned US scholar of race and ethnicity, asks specifically about one's reactions to and interactions with persons of another race. It measures: 1. Diversity of contact (AAC&U curiosity), relativistic appreciation for differing others (AAC&U empathy), and comfort with difference (AAC&U openness).

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Harvard Implicit Bias Association Test

This well-known assessment measures: 1. Participants' implicit attitudes, stereotypes, and biases related to cultural identity markers such as religion, race, gender, and sexuality.  The HubICL curation pulls together articles and resources providing context about this fascinating, groundbreaking and also controversial instrument.

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Global Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Benchmarks (GDEIB)

This survey instrument, created by a profoundly multi-ethnic and global panel of experts, measures: 1. The current state of diversity, equity, and inclusion within an organization. 2. Progress in managing diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts. 3. Feelings of trust, acceptance, and physical/psychological safety. 4. Short and long-term goals for an organization.

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Ethnocultural Identity Behavior Index

This survey, by Yamada, Marsella & Yamada, measures: 1. The individual's degree of involvement with a specific, self-identified ethnic peer group. 2. Connections between behavior and cultural identity.

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Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy

This 31-question survey, created by a multi-ethnic research team, measures one's degree of empathetic perspective-taking ability towards persons of other races or ethnicities. It has been used in educational contexts around the world, and translated into many languages. (This is the english version.) We note that some users feel it "centers whiteness" and therefore we suggest that caution be used when considering it for use with persons or groups of marginalized identity. Its most effective use is probably for gauging degree of privilege in non-marginalized groups.

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Diversity Inclusivity Framework

This framework or checklist is intended to help the instructor or institution gauge the extent to a course aligns on diversity and inclusion across a wide variety of factors: from purpose and goals through pedagogy, participants, assessment methods and content.

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Culturally Responsive Classroom Climate Scale

This study, by Purdue scholar Horane Diatta-Holgate, describes the creation and validation of a survey which asks the student to evaluate whether the instructor uses culturally inclusive language, pedagogy and behavior in the post-secondary classroom, and to define the degree to which that student feels included. While culturally relevant and culturally competent pedagogy is important to inclusion, this is the first known tool to ask for feedback from the students, as opposed to probing teacher attitudes.

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Internationalisation and the development of students’ intercultural competence

Caprice Lantz-Deaton (2017) Internationalisation and the development of students’ intercultural competence, Teaching in Higher Education, 22:5, 532-550, DOI: 10.1080/13562517.2016.1273209

 The Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI®) and a locally designed survey were used to assess students’ intercultural competence and to explore their intercultural experiences over seven months. Students began almost exclusively in lower (ethnocentric) stages of intercultural development and most showed little progress despite reporting relatively high levels of intercultural contact, friends from other cultures and positive experiences. 

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The Role of Pedagogical Variables in Intercultural Development: a Study of Faculty-led Programs

Spenader, A., & Retka, P. (2015). The Role of Pedagogical Variables in Intercultural Development: a Study of Faculty-led Programs. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad25(1), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v25i1.342

This study investigates the intercultural development in several semester-long study abroad programs at the undergraduate level, using the Intercultural Development Inventory, or IDI. The faculty-led cohort model utilizes a study abroad seminar incorporating an experiential learning project to provide pedagogical supports and cultural interventions to students during their sojourn. The study compares mean IDI scores of various cohorts across multiple personal, contextual and pedagogical variables. 

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Intercultural development in study abroad: Influence of student and program characteristics

Terzuolo, E. R. (2018). Intercultural development in study abroad: Influence of student and program characteristics. International Journal of Intercultural Relations65, 86-95.

This quantitative, longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assesses the impact of a semester abroad on students’ ways of understanding and approaching cultural difference, their “intercultural development.” It also examines whether certain demographic characteristics and background experiences of students, as well as characteristics of study abroad programs, influence outcomes.

Change over a semester in Developmental Orientation (DO) scores on the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) v3 is the dependent variable. 

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Utilizing the Intercultural Development Inventory® to develop intercultural competence

Kruse, J.A., Didion, J. & Perzynski, K. Utilizing the Intercultural Development Inventory® to develop intercultural competence. SpringerPlus 3, 334 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-334

The purpose of this study was to assess the cultural competency of students, faculty, and staff from a small Midwest-university college of nursing.

This study was part of a larger interventional study to enhance the cultural development of the College of Nursing faculty, staff, and students. The sample for this study included 314 participants (students, faculty, and staff) in phase one of the parent study. Phase one included the initial administration of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI®) over a two year period with analysis of the pre-test results. Phase two includes the implementation of cultural development interventions with a post-test IDI® survey and is currently in process.

 

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Intercultural competency development of health professions students during study abroad in India

Richards, C. A., & Doorenbos, A. Z. (2016). Intercultural competency development of health professions students during study abroad in India. Journal of nursing education and practice6(12), 89–98. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v6n12p89

This was a mixed methods study, with a pretest-posttest, within-subjects design, and content analysis of student reflection journals. The curriculum was designed to increase students’ sensitivity to different cultural worldviews and support attitudes such as curiosity and openness that lead to relational abilities such as flexibility and adaptability. Students completed the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) and Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) both 3 months prior to and immediately following the trip. 

As a standard part of the curriculum, students were given journals with activities and guided reflections. These were designed to address different competencies in the Association of American Colleges & Universities’ (AACU’s) Intercultural Knowledge and Competence VALUE Rubric.

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